Due to current European emission laws most newer cars are coming out with smaller turbo motors to reduce CO2 and increase power. Turbochargers are the preferred method to extract the most power out of your motor. Some Turbocharged Toyota Supra's can reach power levels over 2000HP. New supercars like the Pagani Huayra are twin turbocharged whereas the new TSi motors from VW and Audi are twin-charged with Superchargers and Turbochargers.
From non-turbo to turbo.
Exhaust headers are replaced with turbo manifold. The turbo manifold connects the turbo to the engine. Exhaust gasses are fed into the turbo and the turbo is spooled by these exhaust gasses. – use picture to illustrate.
A wastegate is used to control the pressure.
Exhaust gasses are fed into the turbo through the exhaust manifold, these gasses spool the turbine side of the turbo. There is a shaft in the turbo that connects a wheel on the turbine side and the compressor side. When the turbine side wheel spins, the compressor side wheel spins, creating pressure also known as boost. Boost is usually measured in Bar and PSI.
Naturally aspirated motors use the ambient pressure to push air into the motor it is then mixed with petrol, ignites, and the excess gasses are pushed through the exhaust.
In a turbocharged system the compressor side sucks in air through the intake, compresses it, increasing the pressure and forcing it into the intercooler and then into the throttle, thus more air is fed into the motor meaning much more power.
Turbo kits are not always bolt on (even though they may state so). Most of the time you can bolt on a turbocharger kit and run it at low pressure (0.4 or 0.5 Bar boost). Generally the engine will have to be strengthened. Con rods, pistons, bearings, rings, valves and other parts will have to be replaced in order for the motor to function properly under the pressure that is forced into it.
Lower compression pistons are usually used in order to lower the compression. ie 11:1 to 9:1 air to fuel ratio. Higher compression is generally for lower burning or lower octane fuels ie Naturally Aspirated motors. It is harder to ignite the mixture because it is not under pressure entering the throttle, therefore, compression in the cylinder must be higher to cause suitable combustion.
Lower compression is used for forced induction cars, these have a higher burning rate because more compressed air and more fuel is entering the cylinder therefore making it easier to ignite it.
Turbo's can have different specifications:
Compressor side housing size.
Turbine side housing size – T25 or T3 or T4 or with a twin-scroll.
Number of blades, compressor and turbine side.
Journal or ball bearing – the shaft either spins on a bush or bearing.
There are many options for turbos, call or email us if you need more information on what turbo or turbo kit is best for you.
General parts of a non turbo to turbo build:
Exhaust Manifold – Replaces the branches and connects the turbo to the motor
Intercooler – Cools the air from when it enters the turbo before it enters the throttle, takes some of the work away from the radiator
Boost piping – Keeps the system under pressure and ensures the air travels at the correct velocity and in the right direction.
Injectors – bigger injectors are needed to mix more fuel with the air.
Intake – Required to filter the ambient air going into the turbo.
Oil catch can – From the tappet cover to the intake this takes residual oil out of the intake.
Intake manifold – usually needed when stock manifold cannot handle pressure.
Blow off valve or diverter valve – vents the excess air to atmosphere or into the intake. This eliminates compressor surge (The force generated on the compressor wheel when there is no diverter/blow-off valve because the air changes direction back towards the turbo instead of towards the throttle).
Downpipe – This connects the turbo to the exhaust.
Vacuum lines – Send the air to the wastegate and diverter valve so at the right pressure they can do their job.
Aftermarket management / piggy back or flash tune – The Software on the car needs to be modified to accommodate the higher fuel and air rate, not to mention many other factors that change on the engines dynamics.
High Pressure fuel pump – Needs to run the bigger injectors and push the fuel to the fuel rail and injectors quicker.
Fuel lines – Handle more fuel and higher fuel pressure.
Fuel rail – Delivers fuel to injectors evenly and holds higher fuel pressure.
Oil feed and return lines to turbo – Oil is used to lubricate the turbo, without lubrication there would be too much friction damaging the turbocharger or its components or over-heating it.
Project Shift has many suppliers building Turbo Kits, please enquire with us so we can build and tailor a package that suits you.